Solar moduls inspection with infrared thermal imaging cameras,
conventional imaging thermography
The testing of solar moduls by infrared thermography has been more than a decade and is becoming increasingly important standard, because this method is relatively fast and to solve with a simple and inexpensive equipment. A IRThermokamera is basically a video recording device, which scales considered each frame or sequence stored in a shifted wavelength radiometric thermal and holds for the temperature evaluation. The digital contents of each recording is thus always available and can, including the temperature data to changed Stahlungsverhältnisse and atmospheric effects, even in retrospect, be easily adapted.

Trust is good, but control is better!
In order to function properly PV systems can be guaranteed, damp heat testing (damp heat), thermal shock testing (thermal cycling), humidity-freeze test (Humidity Freeze), UV-test (UV Exposure), insulation test (Insulation) , Tracking test under rewet be preceded (Wet Leackage Current) and mechanical stress testing (Mechanical Load), which partly precede production accompanying the process already.
Already installed in the state during and immediately after installation, the defect can start looking for anomalies. Accurate thermographic images of photovoltaic cells reveal quickly and purposefully, for example, shunt effects and asymmetries just by observing the temperature of the cell under typical operating conditions. Short circuits, faulty contact and Kriechstromeffekte can be diagnosed by thermal alteration and narrow. Thermographic recordings make anomalies caused by impurities (shunts) quickly became apparent. Fault isolation, contact overheating and diffusion losses can be located using the thermal imaging technology presented and analyzed in detail.

The sensitivity of infrared cameras and thermal resolution is determined by the detector sensitivity or the signal to noise ratio (the lowest measured temperature difference, ie NETD) is limited. The NETD of uncooled thermal cameras with advanced Mikrobolometertechnik is between about 200mK up to peak values of 20mK.

The effect of the so-called shunt resistance and shunt resistance is due to thermal diffusion, the spread of thermal energy over time, and the weak thermal radiation of the defect itself, poorly visible and the cause difficult. It therefore recommends a low NETD thermal imaging cameras and high geometric resolution.

Definition
A shunt resistor or shunt resistor is used in the measurement range setting, ie switching between the ranges, and used the measurement range of measuring instruments. The shunt resistance leads to excess power past the measuring station. For larger currents of several amperes (A) up to one hundred amperes produces separate shunt resistors. A shunt resistor is made of temperature-independent resistance materials.
A shunt resistor is calculated according to Ohm’s law and that the difference between the total current and the current flowing through the meter. The formula gives the value for the shunt resistor (Rp) of the ratio between the measuring current (Im) and the differential current multiplied by the internal resistance of the meter (Rm).

The Integrated high resolution visual camera for IR/Vis Fusiony and video techniques are largely ineffective or failure to detect, locate and analyze them yet. The photography is, however, useful information about the size and location of faults. Therefore, today a high-performance infrared thermal imaging camera is equipped with two alternatives. Good systems can even mix and thermal infrared images and photography and this is congruent even penetrating, often even to determine the possibility of transparency in%.

A variation in the thermal transition of conventional thermography contrast display and any other temperature anomalies delineate, is a heat lamp in conjunction with the thermal imaging camera. With an artificial addition of heat generated, can be made visible by the different thermal conductivity and broken under certain circumstances, the thermal boundary of cracks or impurities, etc..

Another, however, more complex stage in the quantitative thermal imaging technology, the lock-in thermography systems. The aim is to minimize the thermal diffusion, through the use of pulsed or sinusoidal modulated laser or microwave based excitation sources – and these active thermography uses an alternative from the stimulation of halogen or xenon flash lamp.
Lock-in thermography (LIT) is in the portable verification no commercial solution and inflexible. However, the demands in terms of analysis of PV and CV cells as well as the evaluation of errors occur virtually no limits – behaves the same extent in this, unfortunately, with the increase of possibilities of interpretation where the investigation method can not be rigid and inflexible set stationary for mass screening .

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